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In this activity, acceptance are challenged to architecture and body a baptize filtration accessory application frequently accessible abstracts — afterward the aforementioned architecture action acclimated by the engineers and scientists who developed the International Amplitude Station Baptize Recovery Arrangement for NASA. To accommodated this challenge, acceptance use an accepted action as they build, assay and admeasurement the achievement of the filtration device, assay the abstracts collected, and use this advice to assignment adjoin an bigger filtration design.
Although acceptance will assignment in teams of two to three, they are encouraged to anticipate of their absolute chic as a distinct architecture aggregation alive cooperatively and acquirements from the efforts of all associates in adjustment to aftermath the best baptize filtration device.
Students admeasurement the capability of their filtration accessory application pH assay strips and a application tester that is accumulated from readily accessible abstracts and requires about a half-hour to construct. Detailed affairs and a complete abstracts account are provided.
Digital or triple-beam balances (for belief clarify media)
Graduated cylinders -250 mL (for barometer apish wastewater)
Empty 0.5 L artificial baptize bottles (2 per team)
Scissors (1 brace per team)
Paper towels (for discharge cleanup)
10 cm x 10 cm squares of cheesecloth (1 per team, to awning aperture of bottle)
Rubber bands (1 per team, to attach cheesecloth to bottle)
Variety of abstracts to use as clarify media (e.g., affection balls, coffee filters, aquarium gravel, comedy sand, basic macaroni, zeolite, activated carbon (rinse carbon with baptize and dry on bi-weekly or towels afore using))
Paper or artificial cups (to use as scoops in afar clarify media)
Simulated wastewater (For 1 gallon: amalgamate 2 cups distilled vinegar, several drops chicken aliment coloring, dust swept from the floor, a half-cup alluvium or sand, a scattering of pet or animal hair, and abundant baptize to ample the gallon. Shake well.)
Conductivity testers (Optional) (For each: agenda multimeter, replacement fuses, 9V battery, array breeze connector, electrical tape, wire stripper or knife, salt, baptize and cup for testing.) – download PDF
pH assay strips (range 1-12, minimum)
Earth’s accustomed action abutment arrangement provides the air we breathe, the baptize we alcohol and added altitude that abutment life. Sometimes our Earth assets become attenuated and crave cleanup.
One such cleanup action is action on now abreast NASA’s Jet Propulsion Chic in Pasadena, California, through a groundwater cleanup action guided by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Groundwater Cleanup Action Administrator Steve Slaten said, “NASA is amenable for a all-embracing groundwater cleanup that is a aftereffect of accomplished decay auctioning practices that go aback to World War II, back the Army was operating JPL and developing rockets for the military. Liquid wastes — aggregate from toilets to the analytic labs, chemicals, charwoman solvents and a basic of rocket propellant alleged perchlorate — are now in the abysmal arena water. It’s actual important that we apple-pie up this botheration so that our neighbors accept admission to this resource.”
There’s additionally a charge for baptize filtration systems above Earth, like for astronauts on the International Amplitude Station. For example, NASA’s Marshall Amplitude Flight Center is amenable for the design, architecture and testing of a important arrangement on the ISS that not alone provides the aggregation with a adequate environment, but additionally minimizes the cardinal of resupply missions bare to accumulate the ISS and its aggregation functioning. The system, alleged the Environmental Control and Action Abutment System, performs several key functions:
The two capital apparatus of the Environmental Control and Action Abutment Arrangement on the ISS are the Baptize Recovery Arrangement and the Oxygen Generation System.
The Baptize Recovery System
The Baptize Recovery Arrangement provides apple-pie baptize by accomplishment wastewater (including baptize from aggregation affiliate urine, duke wash, and articulate hygiene waters), berth clamminess condensate, and extravehicular action (EVA) wastes. The recovered baptize charge accommodated acrimonious standards afore it can be acclimated to abutment crew, EVA and burden activities.
The Baptize Recovery Arrangement is advised to recycle aggregation affiliate urine and wastewater for reclaim as apple-pie water. By accomplishing so, the arrangement reduces the net accumulation of baptize and consumables that would charge to be launched from Earth to abutment six aggregation associates by 2,760 kg (6,000 lbs) per year.
The Baptize Recovery Arrangement consists of a Urine Processor Accumulation and a Baptize Processor Assembly. A airy exhaustion beverage action is acclimated to balance baptize from urine. The absolute action occurs aural a alternating beverage accumulation that compensates for the absence of force and accordingly aids in the break of liquids and gases in space. Artefact baptize from the Urine Processor Accumulation is accumulated with added decay amnion and delivered to the Baptize Processor Accumulation for treatment. The Baptize Processor Accumulation removes chargeless gas and solid abstracts (hair, lint, etc.) from the baptize afore it goes through a alternation of multi-filtration beds for added purification. Any actual amoebic contaminants and microorganisms are removed by a high-temperature catalytic reactor assembly. The abstention of artefact baptize is arrested by electrical application sensors (the application of baptize is added by the attendance of archetypal contaminants). Unacceptable baptize is reprocessed and apple-pie baptize is beatific to a accumulator catchbasin accessible for use by the crew.
The Oxygen Generation System
The Oxygen Generation Arrangement produces oxygen for breath air for the aggregation and chic animals, as able-bodied as for backup of oxygen absent due to agreement use, airlock depressurization, bore arising and carbon dioxide venting. The arrangement consists mainly of the Oxygen Generation Accumulation and a Ability Supply Module.
The affection of the Oxygen Generation Accumulation is the corpuscle stack, which electrolyzes, or break apart, baptize provided by the Baptize Recovery System, acquiescent oxygen and hydrogen as byproducts. The oxygen is delivered to the berth atmosphere while the hydrogen is vented overboard. The Ability Supply Bore provides the ability bare by the Oxygen Generation Accumulation to anatomize the water.
The Oxygen Generation Arrangement is advised to accomplish oxygen at a selectable bulk and is able of operating both continuously and cyclically. It will board from 2.3 to 9 kg (5 to 20 lbs) of oxygen per day during connected operation and a accustomed bulk of 5.4 kg (12 lbs) of oxygen per day during circadian operation.
The Oxygen Generation Arrangement will board the approaching accession of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly. Once deployed, the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Accumulation will account hydrogen produced by the Oxygen Generation Accumulation to acknowledge with carbon dioxide removed from the berth atmosphere to aftermath baptize and methane. This baptize will be accessible for processing and reuse, thereby abbreviation the bulk of baptize to be resupplied to the Amplitude Station from the ground.
The student-built filtration accessory is fabricated from two 0.5-liter baptize bottles with the cheers cut off. The bottles will be ample so as to acquiesce the wastewater to clarify through clarify media in the top canteen and aggregate in the basal bottle. The claiming is for acceptance to actuate which clarify media they should use to get the purest filtered water. Clearly acquaint to acceptance that the baptize filtration accessories they are about to accomplish will abolish some impurities, but they will NOT accomplish the baptize safe to drink.
Student action (students should assignment in groups of 2-3):
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