Facilities for analysis in Antarctica board analysis stations with accurate accessories and laboratories, helicopters, ski-equipped LC-130 airplanes, Twin Otter airplanes, apparent vehicles, a advanced arrangement of accessories for use in establishing acting camps, an ice-strengthened analysis ship, a analysis icebreaker, and a acumen icebreaker. These accessories are operated beneath the admonition of NSF’s Arctic Analysis Abutment Section (703-306-1032) by a architect (Antarctic Abutment Associates, 303-790-8606) and its subcontractors, by aggressive units of the Department of Defense, and by the U.S. Bank Guard. The afterward accessories are accepted to be attainable in the Antarctic.
McMurdo, on Ross Island, is the better base in Antarctica, all-around up to 1,200 bodies in summer and 250 in winter. It occupies the globe’s extreme south acreage attainable by ship; adjoining ice supports runways and skiways for ample airplanes.
The Albert P. Crary Science and Engineering Centermost at McMurdo, opened in 1991, is a advanced ability that enables adult class procedures in the ambit of antarctic disciplines. It has lab space, aquarium space, staging areas, analytic instrumentation, claimed computers and assignment stations, a bounded breadth network, and abounding admission to Internet.
The Crary Lab additionally supports ecology and ecological investigations, bioassays, automatic hygiene surveys, actinic analyses, and snow and ice mechanics and engineering. A meteorology centermost has AVHRR, HRPT, DMSP, and added abstracts athenaeum and an alternate abstracts admission system.
The Crary Lab has bristles pods in three phases, or wings, accretion 4,320 aboveboard meters of alive area. Phase I has a two-story amount pod (for telecommunications and information) and a analysis pod. Phase II has apple science and atmospheric science pods. Phase III has an aquarium and a wet lab.
The Crary Lab replaces anachronous science barrio that were congenital as aboriginal as 1959. Additional McMurdo accessories abutment analysis involving diving, airship launches, acreage affair training and outfitting, aerial atmosphere investigations, etc.
In summer, carriageable shelters and accessories aid analysis on and beneath the sea ice of adjoining McMurdo Sound; helicopters abutment projects and camps aural 150 kilometers of the station; and apparent cartage board bounded busline and abutment for traverses.
McMurdo is the hub of the program; in summer it has a anchorage and two airfields. The program’s helicopters, LC-130 carriage airplanes, and, in some years, busy Twin Otters are based at McMurdo. Persons en avenue to South Pole and to best alien acreage camps canyon through McMurdo.
Air busline is provided amid New Zealand and McMurdo several times per anniversary from the aboriginal of October to backward February. Flights are fabricated to and from the base over several canicule in mid-August. At added times the base historically has been isolated. A aerodrome on berg ice (‘Pegasus’) became operational in February 1992; wheeled airplanes can use it best of the year. The U.S. Antarctic Affairs will be acceptant to proposals for analysis any time of year at McMurdo including winter.
Communications amid McMurdo and the blow of the apple are attainable year-round, 24 hours a day, and board telephone, cyberbanking mail, Internet including the Apple Advanced Web, and abecedarian articulation radio. Regular U.S. mail account is attainable in summer.
The McMurdo arena has been the article of alive accurate attention. An abounding abstract presents questions for added abstraction in abyssal biology, apple sciences, and added areas.
Opened in 1957, Amundsen-Scott South Pole Base was rebuilt in 1975 as a analysis ability beneath a geodesic arch and animate arches. In contempo years it has undergone abundant advance and advance to handle added analysis needs. The base is at an acclivity of 2,835 meters on the continental ice breadth and has a beggarly temperature of bare 49.3°C.
Flights amid McMurdo and South Pole are common from backward October to mid-February; the base is abandoned at added times. February-to-October (austral winter) citizenry is about 28. About 150 can be accommodated in the summer.
The base has a clean-air analysis ability and computer systems for analysis and communication. It is an important ecology base for atmospheric capacity and meteorological abstracts and is alluringly amid for studies of the bend arena of the magnetosphere. Astrophysics has flourished at the base in contempo years, demography advantage of accomplished optical backdrop of the atmosphere aloft the base consistent from its aerial acclivity and the acutely low temperature and humidity. A biomedical analysis ability is available. Added alive areas of accepted absorption board geophysics, aerial atmosphere sciences, and glaciology.
Palmer Base (64°46’S 64°03’W)
Palmer, on Anvers Island abreast the Antarctic Peninsula, has been in operation back 1965. It is operated in affiliation with an ice-strengthened analysis abode (Polar Duke until 1997, again Laurence M. Gould). Small boats are attainable for sampling in the sea and at adjacent islands. Admission to Palmer, which is year-round, about is by abode from the southern tip of South America.
The altitude at Palmer is beneath astringent than that at the added U.S. stations, and the fauna and flora are diverse. There are abounding opportunities for analysis at or abreast the station; added disciplines (e.g., meteorology, aerial atmosphere physics) additionally are represented. Palmer has all-encompassing analysis laboratories, including wet lab areas and sea baptize aquaria. See worksheets for specifications. Palmer’s citizenry has ranged from 8 to 12 in winter to aloft 40 in summer.
The Palmer Base breadth in 1990 was appointed by the National Science Foundation as a Long Term Ecological Analysis (LTER) site. For admonition acquaintance the analysis affairs administrator at OPP.
In the arid summer, aircraft from McMurdo can abode accurate parties about anywhere on the continent. Tents or acrimonious shelters and snowmobiles can be provided. Helicopters sometimes are deployed to alien locations for abutting abutment of analysis parties. Abundant camps alien from McMurdo Base can be accustomed for ample analysis groups.
Automatic abstracts gatherers (AGO and AWS)
The affairs supports automatic geophysical observatories (AGOs) for unmanned accumulating of abstracts at alien locations. Board adulatory to use these accessories or the consistent abstracts should acquaintance a science affairs administrator (see Office of Arctic Programs roster).
Automatic acclimate stations (AWSs) accept been placed at assorted locations in Antarctica. For admonition and data, acquaintance Dr. Charles Stearns, Department of Meteorology, University of Wisconsin, 1225 W. Dayton Street, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ([email protected], or see the home folio http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/~rbrbrn/awsproj.html).
UV radiation ecology arrangement
The affairs operates attention spectroradiometers optimized for barometer solar ultraviolet radiation at South Pole, Palmer, and McMurdo in Antarctica and at Ushuaia, Argentina, Point Barrow, Alaska, and San Diego. Abstracts are broadcast consistently in abutment of melancholia analysis and are attainable annually on CD-ROM. The abstracts board irradiance scans and databases of chip UV acknowledgment and a array of dosages. Acquaintance Biospherical Instruments, 5340 Riley Street, San Diego, California 92110-2521 ([email protected] or http://www.biospherical.com/).
Polar Duke. The Antarctic Program’s accountant 67-meter-long ice-strengthened Arctic Duke can board 22 researchers. The abode is able for abyssal biology, concrete and actinic oceanography, and abyssal geophysics. It operates frequently forth the Antarctic Peninsula and in the South Shetland Islands; analysis cruises are fabricated abroad as required. Several trips are fabricated amid South American ports and Antarctica anniversary arid summer.
Polar Duke was congenital in 1983 for science and carriage of arctic expeditions. The bark has an ice allocation rated for ablaze icebreaking. The abode is appropriately acceptable to accomplish missions in abstinent backpack ice, but charge break bright of abundant ice and blubbery backpack to abstain besetment.
The abode has bristles laboratories accretion about 150 aboveboard meters. Analysis accessories includes a seismic system, a carriageable isotope laboratory, and committed abyssal chart (e.g., CTD). The abode has a abysmal sea attract winch and abyssal winches, cranes, and A-frames. It has accessory navigation, radar, doppler, and attention abyss recorders.
Polar Duke is accountant to the U.S. Antarctic Affairs until 1997, back Laurence M. Gould will alter it.
Specifications, Arctic Duke:
Laurence M. Gould. Edison Chouest Offshore, which congenital and operates Nathaniel B. Palmer (see below), is architecture and will accomplish this abode for the U.S. Antarctic Affairs alpha in 1997 to alter Arctic Duke. The new ship, 70.1 meters in breadth (preliminary specification), will accept science functions commensurable to Arctic Duke, including A-frames, winches, towing gear, a wet lab, a hydro lab, a dry lab, an electronics lab, and an aquarium room. It will board 26 advisers and abutment technicians, best in bifold apartment anniversary with heads.
Nathaniel B. Palmer. A analysis barge with icebreaking capability, Nathaniel B. Palmer, 94 meters in length, began antarctic operations in 1992 beneath a 10-year lease. The abode is a first-rate belvedere for all-around change studies, including biological, oceanographic, geological, and geophysical components. It can accomplish cautiously year-round in antarctic amnion that generally are bitter or covered with sea ice. It accommodates 37 scientists and abutment technicians, has a aggregation of 22, and is able of up to 75-day missions. It has about 280 aboveboard meters of alive accouter area, 370 aboveboard meters of class space, and avant-garde abyssal equipment. The abode is called Nathaniel B. Palmer to admire the American accustomed with aboriginal seeing Antarctica.
Instruments on Nathaniel B. Palmer are attainable for not-to-interfere underway abstracts on account of board who do not accompany a cruise. Instruments board Seacat 21 thermosalinograph, Turner archetypal 10 fluorometer, Simrad EK500 accurate answer sounder and added acoustic and bathymetric systems, LaCoste-Romberg force meter, XBTs, and meteorological sensors. A wide-swath basal mapping arrangement is installed. A added complete account is in a account worksheet in this book. Proposals for administration of abiding abstracts and abstracts archiving will be considered. Identify artisan staffing and added shipboard abutment both in the angle and on Nathaniel B. Palmer worksheet in this book.
Specifications, Nathaniel B. Palmer:
Other ships. In some years, analysis additionally may be pursued aboard University-National Abyssal Class Systems (UNOLS) ships or added ships, including those of added Antarctic Treaty nations.
Analysis abode EEZ clearances
Any analysis that is arctic of 60°S and involves assignment in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of addition nation (typically aural 200 abyssal afar of the bank of that nation), including underway abstracts such as accession multibeam data, force data, or apparent baptize samples, requires an adapted analysis approval from the nation involved.
Justify any EEZ assignment in the proposal, and board admonition bare for a admittance application. NSF’s architect ASA submits the appliance to the Department of State, which charge accept it no after than 6 months afore the cruise.
The Abutment Office for Aerogeophysical Analysis (SOAR) is a analysis ability that supports OPP-sponsored aerogeophysical assignment in Antarctica. The ability operates a apartment of geophysical systems (gravimeter, magnetometer, laser altimeter, and ice-penetrating radar) aboard a Twin Otter aircraft. Positional admonition is provided by cogwheel GPS (both pseudo-range and carrier-phase), supplemented by inertial aeronautics and attention burden altimetery data.
Investigators adulatory to use the SOAR ability should acquaintance the science coordinator at SOAR no after than 60 canicule above-mentioned to angle acquiescence to ensure that the specific goals can be met, that the proposed activity is technically feasible, and that the activity can be accomodated with uncommitted ability time. Scheduling of the ability will be the albatross of the ability administration team, with administration from NSF.
SOAR is accurate through a accommodating acceding amid NSF and the University of Texas at Austin. Parties defective added admonition or adulatory to add themselves to the SOAR charge account should acquaintance the facility’s Science Coordinator at 512-471-0491 or [email protected] The charge abode is 8701 N. Mopac Blvd., Austin, Texas, 78759-8391 (http://www.ig.utexas.edu/research/projects/soar.html).
Investigators developing programs utilizing aerial alien analysis techniques which are above the accepted capabilities of the SOAR ability should acquaintance a science affairs manager.
Aerial attention GPS
The All-around Accession Arrangement (GPS) is a worldwide, all-weather aeronautics and accession arrangement operated by the Department of Defense. GPS has been acclimated in Antarctica for several years. The use of GPS for aerial attention antarctic analysis (1mm – 10 m) is increasing, with applications including geodetic surveying, arctic breeze measurement, aircraft position, dispatch and dispatch determination, mapping, seismic apparatus accession on affective ice sheets, arctic geology, isostasy, and sample positioning.
The U.S. Antarctic Affairs has an acceding with University Navstar Consortium (UNAVCO) for GPS support. UNAVCO was accustomed in 1984 as a ability by the NSF Division of Apple Sciences to board equipment, technical, and added abutment to university board applying GPS technology to geosciences. UNAVCO has accurate board in added than 100 bounded GPS geodesy projects common and supports several U.S. and all-embracing continuously operating GPS stations.
UNAVCO has been accouterment accessories and predeployment abutment to antarctic board back 1986. Abutment currently includes
UNAVCO’s abetment in the architecture of projects includes admonition about both acreage abutment and abstracts processing. Assets are limited, and board who accept their own receivers and acreage agents are encouraged to use them. Board who do not accept admission to geodetic-quality GPS receivers and are advertent their use for high-precision analysis as allotment of their proposed assignment should acquaintance UNAVCO to altercate the requirements. In general, proposals should body GPS ability into the science activity plan and the budget.
On the Operational Requirements worksheets, specify the cardinal of receivers adapted and the time bare to complete the GPS acreage work. Describe how the assignment will be done, including any charge for abiding markers. Acquaintance UNAVCO if you charge advice developing this information.
UNAVCOP.O. Box 3000Boulder, Colorado 80307303-497-8034 (Bjorn Johns), 303-497-8007 (Barb Perin)303-497-8028 (fax)http://www.unavco.ucar.edu, baddest ‘Contact Us’[email protected]
Specimens for analysis
Specimens calm in the Antarctic are attainable to able board for abstraction if accustomed by the Foundation. For information, including the action for accepting samples, acquaintance the accessories listed below.
Ice cores. National Ice Amount Laboratory, Mail Stop 939, Box 25046 DFC, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado 80225 (303-236-5562, fax 303-236-5448), E-mail: [email protected] Apple Advanced Web home page: http://instaar.colorado.edu/nicl/welcome.html.
Ocean-bottom sedimentary cores and grab samples; continental cores. Antarctic Abyssal Cartography Amount Library, Department of Geology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (904-644-2407) (http://geomag.gly.fsu.edu/~curator/index.html).
Meteorite samples. Secretary, Meteorite Alive Group, Curator’s Branch SN2, Johnson Amplitude Center, NASA, Houston, Texas 77058 (http://exploration.jsc.nasa.gov/curator/antmet/antmet.htm).
Biological specimens. National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 (202-357-2030, [email protected]).
Non-U.S. facilities; all-embracing cooperation
The United States cooperates in analysis with added Antarctic Treaty nations. U.S. scientists adulatory to do analysis with added nations’ programs are asked to acquaintance an Office of Arctic Programs affairs administrator afore appointment a academic proposal.
The U.S. Antarctic Affairs is agilely accessible to cooperation with added Antarctic Treaty nations back mutually beneficial. These projects generally action because of action taken by alone scientists. In your discussions, bethink that individuals cannot accomplish U.S. Antarctic Affairs resources. Your accepting of a acceptable action from addition nation’s antarctic affairs could be construed as charge of U.S. assets for some after project.
Do not alternate in your accord with across colleagues, but amuse acquaintance an OPP affairs administrator (703-306-1033) aloft basic discussions that could advance to U.S. Antarctic Affairs involvement.
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